Checklist of Diptera of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
electronic version 2, 2009
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Simuliidae Newman, 1834

Ladislav Jedlička1 & Jan Knoz2

1 Department of Zoology, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia;
2 Arménská 13, CZ-625 00 Brno-Bohunice, Czech Republic;

Black flies are small, robust flies with a body 1.2-6.0 mm long, blackish-brown or dark grey (with some exceptions). Head mostly holoptic in males, dichoptic in females, ocelli absent, orthognathous, mouthparts piercing-sucking, different in the two sexes as well as in bloodsucking and non-bloodsucking species, palp five-segmented, antenna short, thick, 9-11 segmented. Thorax robust, short, arched dorsally; legs short, stout, all three pairs subequal, tibiae with 1-2 spurs, tarsi five-segmented, two terminal claws; wings short and broad with large anal lobe, membrane usually hyaline, with microtrichia, anterior tubular veins strong, open veins weak and forming surface ridges only, Cu2 mostly sigmoid; two cross-veins present; halteres knob-like. Abdomen elongated, broad at base, ten-segmented, with sclerotized tergites and membraneous pleura and sternum, first segment reduced; male terminalia not rotated, gonopods large, aedeagus complex, projecting distally between gonopods, ventral plate heavily sclerotized; in female, eighth sternite forming genital plate and bearing a pair of terminal ovipositor valves separated by an ovipositor notch. The larva is cylindrical worm-like, eucephalic, apneustic, apodous but with thoracic and abdominal prolegs; they are filter feeders (with cephalic fans) or scrapers. The pupa is obtect, with mostly filamentous spiracular gills, in a cocoon. The larvae and pupae are aquatic, sedentary, and inhabit different substrates in running waters of various type. The adults are nectar and sap feeders, but females of the majority of species are bloodsuckers and act as vectors of nematode and protozoan parasites to man, other mammals and birds.

Nearly 1800 extant species are known (Adler & Crosskey 2009), with 231 species known from Europe (Crosskey 2007); 49 species are included in the present checklist: 43 species from the Czech Republic (33 from Bohemia, 43 from Moravia) and 46 from Slovakia. The fauna of Moravia and Slovakia is well known at the morphospecies level, but new records are expected from Bohemia. The Central European species can be identified using recent keys (Jedlička & Stloukalová 1997, Jedlička et al. 2004, Knoz 1965, 1980, Lechthaler & Car 2006). 


[1] Adler P.H. & .Crosskey R.W. 2009: World blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): A new comprehensive revision of the taxonomic and geogreaphical inventory [2009]. <>. Retrieved 18.08.2009.

[2] Crosskey R.W. 2007: Fauna Europaea: Simuliidae. In Jong H. de (ed.): Fauna Europaea: Diptera, Nematocera. Fauna Europaea, version 1.3. <>. Retrieved  18.08.2009.

[3] Day J.C., Goodall T.I. &  Post R.J. 2008: Confirmation of the species status of the blackfly Simulium galeratum in Britain using molecular taxonomy. Medical and Veterinary Entomology  22: 55-61.

[4] Jedlička L., Kúdela M. & Stloukalová V. 2004: Key to the identification of blackfly pupae (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Central Europe. Biologia, Bratislava 59/Suppl. 15: 157-178.

[5] Jedlička L. & Stloukalová V. 1997: 2.20. Family Simuliidae. In Papp L. & Darvas B. (eds): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera, vol. 2, Nematocera and Lower Brachycera. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 331-347.

[6] Knoz J. 1965: To identification of Czechoslovakian black-flies (Diptera, Simuliidae). Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalimu Universitatis Purkynianae Brunenensis 6: 1-54.

[7] Knoz J. 1980: Simuliidae. In Chvála M. (ed.): Krevsající mouchy a střečci – Diptera. Academia, Praha, pp. 144-281.

[8] Lechthaler W. & Car M. 2006. Simuliidae – Key to Larvae and Pupae from Central and Western Europe. CD–ROM–Edition, Wolfgang Lechthaler, Wien.

Prosimulium Roubaud, 1906
fulvipes (Edwards, 1921) CZ ( M ) SK in PCV2 also as P. subrufipes [1]
hirtipes (Fries, 1824) CZ (B M ) SK
latimucro (Enderlein, 1925) CZ (B M ) SK
rufipes (Meigen, 1830) CZ (B M ) SK
tomosvaryi (Enderlein, 1921) CZ (B M ) SK
Twinnia Stone & Jamnback, 1955
hydroides (Novák, 1956) CZ (B M ) SK
Simulium Latreille, 1802
Boophthora Enderlein, 1921
erythrocephalum (De Geer, 1776) CZ (B M ) SK
Eusimulium Roubaud, 1906
angustipes Edwards, 1915 CZ ( M ) SK
aureum (Fries, 1824) CZ (B M ) SK
velutinum (Santos Abreu, 1929) CZ (B M ) SK
Nevermannia Enderlein, 1921
angustatum (Rubtsov, 1956) CZ ( M ) SK
angustitarse (Lundström, 1911) CZ (B M ) SK
bertrandi (Grenier & Dorier, 1959) CZ (B M ) SK
brevidens (Rubtsov, 1956) CZ (B M ) SK
carpathicum (Knoz, 1961) CZ (B M ) SK
carthusiense (Grenier & Dorier, 1959) CZ ( M ) SK
codreanui (Serban, 1958) CZ ( M ) SK
costatum (Friederichs, 1920) CZ (B M ) SK
crenobium (Knoz, 1961) CZ (B M ) SK
cryophilum (Rubtsov, 1959) CZ (B M ) SK
lundstromi (Enderlein, 1921) CZ (B M ) SK
oligotuberculatum (Knoz, 1965) CZ ( M ) SK
vernum (Macquart, 1838) CZ (B M ) SK
Obuchovia Rubtsov, 1947
auricoma (Meigen, 1818) CZ ( M ) SK
Schoenbaueria Enderlein, 1921
pusillum Fries, 1824 CZ ( M )
Simulium s. str.
argenteostriatum Strobl, 1898 CZ (B M ) SK
argyreatum Meigen, 1838 CZ (B M ) SK
colombaschense (Fabricius, 1787) SK
degrangei Dorier & Grenier, 1960 SK
galeratum Edwards, 1920 CZ (B M ) SK restored name [3], in ECV1 as S. reptantoides Carlsson, 1962
ibariense Zivkovitch & Grenier, 1959  CZ ( M ) erroneously omitted in PCV2 [7]
maximum (Knoz, 1961) CZ (B M ) SK
monticola Friederichs, 1920 CZ (B M ) SK
morsitans Edwards, 1915 CZ (B M ) SK
noelleri Friederichs, 1920 CZ (B M ) SK
ornatum Meigen, 1818 CZ (B M ) SK
paramorsitans Rubtsov, 1956 SK
posticatum Meigen, 1838 CZ (B M )
reptans (Linnaeus, 1758) CZ (B M ) SK
rostratum (Lundström, 1911) CZ (B M ) SK
trifasciatum Curtis, 1839 CZ (B M ) SK
tuberosum (Lundström, 1911) CZ (B M ) SK
variegatum Meigen, 1818 CZ (B M ) SK
voilense Serban, 1960 SK
vulgare Dorogostaisky, Rubtsov & Vlasenko, 1935 CZ ( M ) SK
Wilhelmia Enderlein, 1921
balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924) SK
equinum (Linnaeus, 1758) CZ (B M ) SK
lineatum (Meigen, 1804) CZ (B M ) SK
pseudequinum Séguy, 1921 SK