Checklist of Diptera of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
electronic version 2, 2009
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Culicidae Meigen, 1818

Ivan Országh1, Jan Minář2 & Jozef Halgoš3

1 Comenius University, Department of Zoology, Mlynská dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia;
2 Jaselská 3, CZ-160 00 Praha 6, Czech Republic
3 Comenius University, Department of Ecology, Mlynská dolina, SK-842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia;

Mosquitoes are one of the best-studied families of Diptera. The perennial plea for more detailed analyses refers to their role in transmitting various disease pathogens (viruses, malaria, filarioses, etc.). Females of many species are haematophagous, and they suck the blood of vertebrates.

Body slender, usually 3.0-9.0 mm long, rarely longer. Compound eyes large, occupying most of head laterally, ocelli absent. Antenna 15-segmented, bushy in males and with long setae on flagellomeres. Female mouthparts consisting of a piercing proboscis, longer than height of head; proboscis of males shorter, mandibular and maxillary stylets variously reduced. Scutum forming the largest part of mesonotum. Scutellum trilobed (Culicinae excluding Toxorhynchitini) or rounded (Anophelinae, Toxorhynchitini). Wings narrow, long, with scales on hind-margin and veins; membrane covered with microtrichia. Costal vein developed around the whole wing, subcosta long, radius diverging into four branches marginally, R1, R2, R3, R4+5. Media ramified into M1 and M2. Cross-veins r-m and m-m visible. Legs slender, praetarsus with claws and short empodium between them. Abdomen long, cylindrical, 10- segmented with spiracles on second and seventh segments. Male terminalia rotate 180° shortly after hatching (hypopygium inversum); most of terminalia occupied by gonopods. In females one (Anophelinae) or three (Culicinae) spermathecae in 7th-8th abdominal segments. Females lay eggs on the water surface (Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, Coquillettidia, Uranotaenia) or on soil in depressions subject to filling by rains, melting snow, or floodwater (Aedes and Ochlerotatus). There are four larval instars which are all aquatic. Larvae as well as pupae are agile.

Approximately 3540 species are known worldwide (Walter Reed Biosystematic Unit 2001). More than 100 occur in Europe (Snow & Ramsdale 2003, 2005), of which 45 have been recorded in the Czech Republic (39 in Bohemia, 39 in Moravia) and 50 in Slovakia.

The identification of mosquitoes in the area of the Czech Republic and Slovakia is based on the important monograph by Kramář (1958). However, useful information can be found in the keys contained in other papers (Dahl 1997, Mihályi & Sztankay-Gulyás 1963, Mohrig 1969, Mončadskij 1951). The most recent survey of the mosquitoes of the area of the Czech Republic and Slovakia was published in ECV1 (Országh et al. 2006). A catalogue of the Slovak species was published by Országh (2004). Distribution maps for the species in Slovakia are available in a paper from Országh et al. (2001).

Recently more significant changes have been made to the hierarchy of the lower level taxa in the tribe Aedini (Reinert 2000, Reinert et al. 2004, 2006). Mosquito nomenclature follows the Fauna Europaea (Snow & Ramsdale 2007) as well as the revised checklist of European mosquitoes (Snow & Ramsdale 2003) and Reinert et al. (2006).


[1] Bitušík P. & Hrabinová S. 1998: Uranotaenia unguiculata (Diptera, Culicidae) – first record from Slovakia. Biologia, Bratislava 53: 644.

[2] Dahl C. 1997: Diptera Culicidae, Mosquitoes, pp. 163-186. In Nilsson A. (ed.): Aquatic Insects of North Europe. A Taxonomic Handbook. Vol. 2. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.

[3] Halgoš J. & Benková I. 2004: First record of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Slovakia. Biologia, Bratislava 59/Suppl. 15: 68.

[4] Jalili N., Országh I., Halgoš J. & Labuda M. 2000: Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Slovakia. European Mosquito Bulletin 6: 20-26.

[5] Kramář J. 1958: Komáři bodaví – Culicinae. Fauna ČSR 13. Nakladatelství Československé akademie věd, Praha, 287 pp.

[6] Mihályi F. & Sztankay-Gulyás M. 1963: Magyarország csípő szúnyogjai. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 231 pp.

[7] Mohrig W. 1969: Die Culiciden Deutschlands. Parasitologische Schriftenreihe 18. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. 260 pp.

[8] Mončadskij A.S. 1951: Ličinky krovososuščich komarov SSSR i sopredežnych stran  (podsem. Culicinae). Izdatežstvo AN  SSSR,  Moskva, Leningrad. 291 pp.

[9] Országh I. 2002: Culex martinii Medschid (Diptera, Culicidae) in Slovakia. Acta Zoologica Universitatis Comenianae 44: 75-78.

[10] Országh I. 2004: Catalogue of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Slovakia. Biologia, Bratislava 59/Suppl. 15: 69-156.

[11] Országh I., Halgoš J., Jalili N. & Labuda M. 2001: Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Slovakia II. European Mosquito Bulletin 11: 1-26.

[12] Országh I., Minář J. & Halgoš J. 2006: Culicidae Meigen, 1818. In Jedlička L., Stloukalová V. & Kúdela M. (eds): Checklist of Diptera of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Electronic version 1. <>. Retrieved 01.06.2009. 

[13] Reinert J.F. 2000: New classification for the composite genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini), elevation of subgenus Ochlerotatus to generic rank, reclassification of the other subgenera, and notes on certain subgenera and species. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 16: 175-188.

[14] Reinert J.F., Harbach R.E. & Kitching I.J. 2004: Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae), based on morphological characters of all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 142: 289-368.

[15] Reinert J.F., Harbach R.E. & Kitching I.J. 2006: Phylogeny and classification of Finlaya and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 1-101.

[16] Snow K.R. & Ramsdale C.D. 2003: A revised checklist of European mosquitoes. European Mosquito Bulletin 15: 1-5.

[17] Snow K.R. & Ramsdale C.D. 2007: Fauna Europaea: Culicidae. In Jong H. de (ed.): Fauna Europaea: Diptera, Nematocera. Fauna Europaea version 1.3. <>. Retrieved 01.06.2009.

[18] Trpiš M. 1956: Poznatky z boja proti komárom na juhozápadnom Slovensku. Biologické práce, Bratislava 2(6): 27-46 + 2 maps.

[19] Trpiš M. 1965: Verbreitung der Stechmücken (Diptera, Culicidae) in der Ostslowakei. Entomologické problémy 5: 71-100.

[20] Vaňhara J. 1985: Influence of the waterworks constructed near Nové Mlýny (Southern Moravia) on the mosquito community (Culicidae, Diptera). Ekológia (ČSSR) 4: 251-265.

[21] Vaňhara J. 1987: Faunistic records from Czechoslovakia. Diptera, Culicidae, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 84: 68.

[22] Votýpka J., Šeblová V. & Rádrová J. 2008. Spread of the West Nile virus vector Culex modestus and the potential malaria vector Anopheles hyrcanus in central Europe. Journal of Vector Ecology 33: 269-277.

[23] Walter Reed Biosystematic Unit. 2001: Systematic Catalog of Culicidae. <>. Retrieved 01.06.2009.

Anopheles Meigen, 1818
Anopheles s. str.
atroparvus Van Thiel, 1927 CZ ( M ) SK  in PCV2 also as A. labranchiae Falleroni, 1926 [4]
claviger (Meigen, 1804)  CZ (B M ) SK
hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771) CZ M ) SK
maculipennis Meigen, 1818 CZ (B M ) SK
messeae Falleroni, 1926 CZ (B M ) SK
plumbeus Stephens, 1828 CZ (B M ) SK
Aedes Meigen, 1818
Aedes s. str.
cinereus Meigen, 1818 CZ (B M ) SK
geminus Peus, 1970 SK
rossicus Dolbeshkin, Gorickaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 CZ (B M ) SK
Aedimorphus Theobald, 1903
vexans (Meigen, 1830) CZ (B M ) SK
Dahliana Reinert, Harbach & Kitching, 2006 
geniculata (Olivier, 1791) CZ (B M ) SK in PCV2 in genus Aedes [15]
Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891 in PCV2 all species in genus Aedes [13]
Ochlerotatus s. str.
annulipes (Meigen, 1830) CZ (B M ) SK
behningi (Martini, 1926) SK
cantans (Meigen, 1818) CZ (B M ) SK
caspius (Pallas, 1771)  CZ (B M ) SK
cataphylla (Dyar, 1916)  CZ (B M ) SK
communis (De Geer, 1776)  CZ (B M ) SK
cyprius (Ludlow, 1919)  SK
detritus (Haliday, 1833)  SK in PCV2 erroneously omitted [19]
diantaeus (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912)  CZ (B M ) SK
dorsalis (Meigen, 1830)  CZ (B M ) SK
excrucians (Walker, 1856)  CZ (B M ) SK
flavescens (Müller, 1764)  CZ (B M ) SK
hungaricus (Mihályi, 1955)  SK
intrudens (Dyar, 1919)  CZ (B M ) SK
leucomelas (Meigen, 1804)  CZ (B M ) SK
nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918)  CZ ( M SK  in PCV2 erroneously omitted from CZ (M) [21]
pulcritarsis (Rondani, 1872)  CZ (B ) SK
pullatus (Coquillett, 1904)  CZ (B ) SK
punctor (Kirby in Richardson, 1837)  CZ (B M ) SK
riparius (Dyar & Knab, 1907)  CZ (B )
sticticus (Meigen, 1838)  CZ (B M ) SK
Rusticoidus Shevchenko & Prudkina, 1973
refiki (Medschid, 1928) CZ ( M ) SK
rusticus (Rossi, 1790) CZ (B M ) SK  in PCV2 erroneously omitted from M [20]
Culex Linnaeus, 1758
Barraudius Edwards, 1921
modestus Ficalbi, 1890 CZ (B M ) SK
Culex s. str.
pipiens pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 CZ (B M ) SK
pipiens molestus Forskål, 1775 CZ (B M ) SK
theileri Theobald, 1903 SK
torrentium Martini, 1925 CZ (B M ) SK
Maillotia Theobald, 1907
hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 CZ (B ) SK
Neoculex Dyar, 1905
martinii Medschid, 1930 CZ ( M ) SK in PCV2 erroneously omitted [9, 18]
territans Walker, 1856 CZ (B M ) SK
Culiseta Felt, 1904
Allotheobaldia Brolemann, 1919
longiareolata (Macquart, 1838) SK
Culicella Felt, 1904
fumipennis (Stephens, 1825) CZ (B )
morsitans (Theobald, 1901) CZ (B M ) SK
ochroptera (Peus, 1935) CZ (B ) SK
Culiseta s. str.
alaskaensis (Ludlow, 1906) CZ (B M ) SK
annulata (Schrank, 1776) CZ (B M ) SK
glaphyroptera (Schiner, 1864)  CZ (B M ) SK
subochrea (Edwards in Wesenberg-Lund, 1921) CZ (B M ) SK in PCV2  as subspecies in C. annulata [16]
Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905
Coquillettidia s. str.
richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889) CZ (B M ) SK
Uranotaenia Lynch Arribálzaga, 1891
Pseudoficalbia Theobald, 1912
unguiculata Edwards, 1913 CZ ( M ) SK  record  for SK in PCV2 was based on manuscript of [1]