Checklist of Diptera of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
electronic version 2, 2009
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Canacidae Jones, 1906

Jindřich Roháček

Department of Entomology, Silesian Museum, Tyršova 1, CZ-746 01 Opava, Czech Republic;

Minute to small (1.5-3.5 mm) acalyptrate flies, with yellow to black, densely micropubescent body (yellow, grey or brown). Head large with relatively small eyes; antenna small, arista subbasal, very short pubescent. Frons with 1-5 pairs of orbital setae (lateroclinate or reclinate), ocelli and ocellar setae present, postvertical (= postocellar) setae short, strongly inclinate, absent in Tethina lusitanica Munari, Almeida & Andrade, 2009; gena bare or with sparse, thin setulae (Pelomyiinae), ventrally with more or less distinct peristomal setae. Face with shining knobs near vibrissal pore (in West Palaearctic Tethininae). Thorax with a rich chaetotaxy, including long dorsocentral setae. Tibiae without preapical dorsal setae. Wing unspotted (except for Tethina pictipennis Freidberg & Beschovski, 1996 from Morocco and T. lusitanica from Portugal), with a pale yellow to brownish tinge; C with subcostal break, Sc distally fused with apex of R1, cells bm and dm confluent or separate, cell cup present but small, A1 and A2 absent or unpigmented. Most of the members of the family are halobionts and/or thalassobionts, strictly associated with salty habitats, e.g. coastal saltmarshes, seashore wrack, sandy beaches, shores of inland salt lakes, alkaline springs etc, and only a few species are also known from habitats that are apparently without increased salinity (forests, meadows, deserts). Several species are capable of utilising secondary anthropogenic habitats, particularly those with alkaline enriched areas (Munari 1998, Roháček 1992). The preimaginal stages and life-histories of Tethinidae are largely unknown; some species have been reared from deposits of seaweed.

The species listed below were formerly (in ECV1) treated within the family Tethinidae which was recently united with Canacidae by McAlpine (2007). Altogether 39 species of Canacidae are listed from Europe and adjacent areas in the Fauna Europaea (Munari 2007, sub Tethinidae; Mathis 2007, sub Canacidae), but this number is no longer accurate due to recently discovered synonymies (Munari 2006). Because of the inland position of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, only four species, belonging to the subfamilies Tethininae and Pelomyiinae,  are included in the present checklist (three in the Czech Republic, two in Bohemia, two in Moravia, and four in Slovakia). No species has been added since ECV1. The family was fully characterised by Mathis and Munari (1996), Munari (1998) and Mathis (1998) who also provided modern keys to genera. There is no comprehensive identification tool for the European species; those occurring in Central Europe can be identified using Collin (1966, largely outdated), Soós (1981), Munari (1998) and Munari and Ebejer (2001). A comprehensive key to all genera and species from Italy and adjacent territories has recently been published by Munari and Vanin (2007). All the faunistic data from the Czech Republic and Slovakia were summarised by Roháček (1992). The nomenclature used in present checklist follows that in the Fauna Europaea (Mathis 2007, Munari 2007), with changes proposed by Munari (2006). 


[1] Collin J.E. 1966: A revision of the Palaearctic species of Tethina and Rhicnoessa. Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia 16: 19-32.

[2] Foster G.A. & Mathis W.N. 2003: A revision of the genera Pelomyia Williston and Masoniella Vockeroth (Diptera: Tethinidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 619: 1-63.

[3] Mathis W.N. 1998: 3.20. Family Canacidae. In Papp L. & Darvas B. (eds): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 3. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 251-257.

[4] Mathis W.N. 2007: Fauna Europaea: Canacidae. In Pape T. (ed.): Fauna Europaea: Diptera, Brachycera. Fauna Europaea version 1.3. <>. Retrieved 20.10.2009.

[5] Mathis W.N. & Munari L. 1996: World Catalog of the Family Tethinidae (Diptera). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 584: i-iv, 1-27.

[6] McAlpine D.K. 2007: The surge flies (Diptera: Canacidae: Zaleinae) of Australasia and notes on Tethinid-Canacid morphology and relationships. Records of the Australian Museum 59: 27-64

[7] Munari L. 1998: 3.19. Family Tethinidae. In Papp L. & Darvas B. (eds): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 3. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 243-250.

[8] Munari L. 2007: Fauna Europaea: Tethinidae. In Pape T. (ed.): Fauna Europaea: Diptera, Brachycera. Fauna Europaea version 1.3. <>. Retrieved 20.10.2009.

[9] Munari L. 2006: New synonymies and lectotype designations in western Palaearctic Tethinidae, with some remarks on the intraspecific variability of the surstylus of Tethina strobliana (Mercier, 1923) (Diptera: Brachycera, Acalyptrata). Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia 57: 101-115.

[10] Munari L. & Ebejer M.J. 2001: Three new species of Tethina Haliday, 1838 from Malta and Tunisia, with a revised key to the alboguttata-group (Diptera, Tethinidae). Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia 51 (2000): 131-145.

[11] Munari L. & Vanin S. 2007: Studi sui Tethinidae d’Italia, con particolare riguardo alle specie delle spiagge a sabbia fine dell’Alto Adriatico (Diptera, Brachycera). Società Veneziana di Scienze Naturali Lavori, 32: 55-75.

[12] Roháček J. 1992: Tethinidae (Diptera) of Czechoslovakia: a faunistic survey. Časopis Slezského zemského muzea Opava (A) 41: 127-131.

[13] Soós Á. 1981: 60. család: Tethinidae – Szikilegyek. Fauna Hungariae 149, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 129-137.

Pelomyia Williston, 1893
occidentalis Williston, 1893 CZ   (B M ) SK in PCV2 as P. steyskali Hardy & Delfinado, 1980 [2]
Pelomyiella Hendel, 1934
hungarica (Czerny, 1928) SK
mallochi (Sturtenvant, 1923)  CZ   ( M ) SK
Tethina Haliday, 1838
strobliana (Mercier, 1923) CZ   (B ) SK in PCV2 as T. (Rhicnoessa) simplex (Collin 1966) [9]